The Eight Resolutions

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The following eight resolutions were submitted during the Congress and were declared / recommended which had created a legacy to this day, most evidently by the two topmost resolutions.

Resolution 1

Considering the incontestable superiority of speech over signs in restoring the deaf-mute to society, and in giving him a more perfect knowledge of language,

Declares –

That the Oral method ought to be preferred that of signs for the education and instruction of the deaf and dumb.


Voted 160 to 4 in favour on 7/9/1880.

Resolution 2

Considering that the simultaneous use of speech and signs has the disadvantage of injuring speech, lip-reading and precision of ideas,

Declares –

That the Pure Oral method ought to be preferred.



Voted 150 to 16 in favour on 9/9/1880.

Resolution 3

Considering that a great number of the deaf and dumb are not receiving the benefit of instruction, and that this condition is owing to the "impotence" (impotenza) of families and of institutions,

Recommends –

That Governments should take the necessary steps that all the deaf and dumb may be educated.


Carried unanimously on 10/9/1880.

Resolution 4

Considering that the teaching of the speaking deaf by the Pure Oral method should resemble as much as possible that of those who hear and speak,

Declares –

a) That the most natural and effectual means by which the speaking deaf may acquire the knowledge of language is the "intuitive" method, viz., that which consists in setting forth, first by speech, and then by writing the objects and the facts which are placed before the eyes of the pupils.

b) That in the first, or maternal, period the deaf-mute ought to be led to the observation of grammartical forms by means of examples and of practical exercises, and that in the second period he ought to be assisted to deduce from these examples the grammatical rules, expressed with the utmost simplicity and clearness.

c) That books, written with words and in forms of language known to the pupil, can be put into his hands at any time.

Carried on 11/09/1880.

Resolution 5

Considering the want of books sufficiently elementary to help the gradual and progressive development of language,

Recommends –

That the teachers of the Oral system should apply themselves to the publication of special works on the subject.

Carried on 11/09/1880.

Resolution 6

Considering the results obtained by the numerous inquiries made concerning the deaf and dumb of every age and every condition long after they had quitted school, who, when interrogated upon various subjects, have answered correctly, with sufficient clearness of articulation, and read the lips of their questioners with the greatest facility,

Declares –

a) That the deaf and dumb taught by the Pure Oral method do not forget after leaving school the knowledge which they have acquired there, but develop it still further by conversation and reading, when have been made so easy for them.

b) That in their conversation with speaking persons they make use exclusively of speech.

c) That speech and lip-reading so far from being lost, are developed by practice.

Carried on 11/09/1880.

Resolution 7

Considering that the education of the deaf and dumb by speech has peculiar requirements; considering also that the experienced of teachers of deaf-mutes is almost unanimous,

Declares –

a) That the most favourable age for admitting a deaf child into school is from eight to ten years.

b) That the school term ought to be seven years at least; but eight years would be preferable.

3) That no teacher can effectually teach a class of more than ten children on the Pure Oral method.

Carried on 11/09/1880.

Resolution 8

Considering that the application of the Pure Oral method in institutions where it is not yet in active operation, should be – to avoid the certainty of failure – prudent, gradual, progressive,

Recommends –

a) That the pupils newly received into the schools should form a class by themselves, where instruction could be given by speech.

b) That these pupils should be absolutely separated from others too far advanced to be instructed by speech, and whose education will be completed by signs.

c) That each year a new speaking class be established, with all the old pupils taught by signs have completed their education.

Carried on 11/09/1880.


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